Alternate transcription of the Toll-like receptor signaling cascade

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Title Alternate transcription of the Toll-like receptor signaling cascade
Author Wells, Christine A.; Chalk, Alistair M; Forrest, Alistair; Taylor, Darrin; Waddell, Nic; Schroder, Kate; Himes, S Roy; Faulkner, Geoffrey; Lo, Sandra; Kasukawa, Takeya; Kawaji, Hideya; Kai, Chikatoshi; Kawai, Jun; Katayama, Shintaro; Carninci, Piero; Hayashizaki, Yoshihide; Hume, David A; Grimmond, Sean M
Journal Name Genome Biology
Year Published 2006
Place of publication England
Publisher BioMed Central Ltd
Abstract BACKGROUND : Alternate splicing of key signaling molecules in the Toll-like receptor (Tlr) cascade has been shown to dramatically alter the signaling capacity of inflammatory cells, but it is not known how common this mechanism is. We provide transcriptional evidence of widespread alternate splicing in the Toll-like receptor signaling pathway, derived from a systematic analysis of the FANTOM3 mouse data set. Functional annotation of variant proteins was assessed in light of inflammatory signaling in mouse primary macrophages, and the expression of each variant transcript was assessed by splicing arrays. RESULTS : A total of 256 variant transcripts were identified, including novel variants of Tlr4, Ticam1, Tollip, Rac1, Irak1, 2 and 4, Mapk14/p38, Atf2 and Stat1. The expression of variant transcripts was assessed using custom-designed splicing arrays. We functionally tested the expression of Tlr4 transcripts under a range of cytokine conditions via northern and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. The effects of variant Mapk14/p38 protein expression on macrophage survival were demonstrated. CONCLUSION : Members of the Toll-like receptor signaling pathway are highly alternatively spliced, producing a large number of novel proteins with the potential to functionally alter inflammatory outcomes. These variants are expressed in primary mouse macrophages in response to inflammatory mediators such as interferon-gamma and lipopolysaccharide. Our data suggest a surprisingly common role for variant proteins in diversification/repression of inflammatory signaling.
Peer Reviewed Yes
Published Yes
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Copyright Statement Copyright 2006 Wells et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Volume 7
Page from 1
Page to 17
ISSN 1474-760X
Date Accessioned 2006-06-21
Language en_AU
Comments Page numbers are not for citation purposes. Instead, this article has the unique article number of R10.
Faculty Eskitis, Inst Cell&Molecular Therapies
Subject PRE2009-Genetic Immunology
Publication Type Journal Articles (Refereed Article)
Publication Type Code c1

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