Ocean urea fertilization for carbon credits poses high ecological risks

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Title Ocean urea fertilization for carbon credits poses high ecological risks
Author Glibert, Patricia M.; Azanza, Rhodora; Burford, Michele Astrid; Furuya, Ken; Abal, Eva; Al-Azri, Adnan; Al-Yamani, Faiza; Andersen, Per; Anderson, Donald M.; Beardall, John; Berg, G. Mine; Brand, Larry; Bronk, Deborah; Brookes, Justin; Burkholder, JoAnn M.; Cembella, Allan; Cochlan, William P.; Collier, Jackie L.; Collos, Yves; Diaz, Robert; Doblin, Martina; Drennen, Thomas; Dyhram, Sonya; Fukuyo, Yasuwo; Furnas, Miles; Galloway, James; Granéli, Edna; Ha, Dao Viet; Hallegraeff, Gustaaf; Harrison, John; Harrison, Paul J.; Heil, Cynthia A.; Heimann, Kirsten; Howarth, Robert; Jauzein, Cécile; Kana, Austin A.; Kana, Todd M.; Kim, Hakgyoon; Kudela, Raphael; Legrand, Catherine; Mallin, Michael; Mulholland, Margaret; Murray, Shauna; O'Neil, Judith; Pitcher, Grant; Qi, Yuzao; Rabalais, Nancy; Raine, Robin; Seitzinger, Sybil; Salomon, Paulo S.; Solomon, Caroline; Stoecker, Diane K.; Usup, Gires; Wilson, Joanne; Yin, Kedong; Zhou, Mingjiang; Zhu, Mingyuan
Journal Name Marine Pollution Bulletin
Year Published 2008
Place of publication United Kingdom
Publisher Elsevier Ltd.
Abstract The proposed plan for enrichment of the Sulu Sea, Philippines, a region of rich marine biodiversity, with thousands of tonnes of urea in order to stimulate algal blooms and sequester carbon is flawed for multiple reasons. Urea is preferentially used as a nitrogen source by some cyanobacteria and dinoflagellates, many of which are neutrally or positively buoyant. Biological pumps to the deep sea are classically leaky, and the inefficient burial of new biomass makes the estimation of a net loss of carbon from the atmosphere questionable at best. The potential for growth of toxic dinoflagellates is also high, as many grow well on urea and some even increase their toxicity when grown on urea. Many toxic dinoflagellates form cysts which can settle to the sediment and germinate in subsequent years, forming new blooms even without further fertilization. If large-scale blooms do occur, it is likely that they will contribute to hypoxia in the bottom waters upon decomposition. Lastly, urea production requires fossil fuel usage, further limiting the potential for net carbon sequestration. The environmental and economic impacts are potentially great and need to be rigorously assessed.
Peer Reviewed Yes
Published Yes
Publisher URI http://www.elsevier.com/locate/marpolbul
Alternative URI http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2008.03.010
Copyright Statement Copyright 2008 Elsevier. Please refer to the journal's website for access to the definitive, published version.
Volume 56
Page from 1049
Page to 1056
ISSN 0025-326X
Date Accessioned 2009-03-17
Language en_AU
Research Centre Australian Rivers Institute
Faculty Faculty of Science, Environment, Engineering and Technology
Subject Environmental Management
URI http://hdl.handle.net/10072/23543
Publication Type Journal Articles (Refereed Article)
Publication Type Code c1

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