Effects of Maximal Static Apnea on Antioxidant Defenses in Trained Free Divers

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Title Effects of Maximal Static Apnea on Antioxidant Defenses in Trained Free Divers
Author Bulmer, Andrew Cameron; Coombes, Jeff S.; Sharman, James E.; Stewart, Iam B.
Journal Name Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Year Published 2008
Place of publication United States
Publisher Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
Abstract Purpose: To investigate the effects of maximal static apnea on plasma antioxidant status, oxidative stress, and antioxidant enzyme activities in trained free divers. Methods: Blood was taken from apnea-trained (Tr) and control (Con) subjects at baseline (B) and after one (A1), three (A3), and five (A5) apneas. Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP), uric acid, and bilirubin assays assessed plasma antioxidant status and malondialdehyde (MDA) quantified the oxidative stress response. The activities of erythrocyte antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and catalase (CAT) were determined at baseline and after the fifth apnea. Results: TEAC was significantly higher in divers versus controls after A1 (P < 0.05). A group effect of SOD activity indicated higher activity throughout the protocol in Tr (mean ± SD; Con, 43.2 ± 10.1 U·g Hb-1; Tr, 50.1 ± 7.3 U·g Hb-1; P = 0.04). With no other group differences, the groups' data were combined. Apnea significantly increased SOD (B, 44.1 ± 11.1 U·g Hb-1; A5, 48.1 ± 7.5 U·g Hb-1; P < 0.05) and GPx activity (B, 60.5 ± 14.9 U·g Hb-1; A5, 70.1 ± 16.0 U·g Hb-1; P = 0.02); however, CAT activity decreased (B, 5.25 ± 0.59 U·mg Hb-1; A5, 5.00 ± 0.53 U·mg Hb-1; P = 0.03). MDA was unaffected by apnea (P = 0.32). Conclusions: Trained free divers have increased SOD activity during apnea; however, there is little difference in their antioxidant and oxidative stress responses compared with controls. In both groups, acute changes in antioxidant enzyme activities suggest that they may protect from excessive antioxidant depletion and oxidative stress during apnea.
Peer Reviewed Yes
Published Yes
Publisher URI http://journals.lww.com/
Alternative URI http://dx.doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0b013e31816a7188
Volume 40
Issue Number 7
Page from 1307
Page to 1313
ISSN 0195-9131
Date Accessioned 2009-11-05
Language en_AU
Research Centre Heart Foundation Research Centre; Menzies Health Institute Qld
Faculty Griffith Health Faculty
Subject Medical and Health Sciences
URI http://hdl.handle.net/10072/26668
Publication Type Journal Articles (Refereed Article)
Publication Type Code c1x

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