The anti-mutagenic and antioxidant effects of bile pigments in the Ames Salmonella test

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Title The anti-mutagenic and antioxidant effects of bile pigments in the Ames Salmonella test
Author Bulmer, Andrew Cameron; Ried, K.; Coombes, J.S.; Blanchfield, J.T.; Toth, I.; Wagner, K.-H.
Journal Name Mutation Research - Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis
Year Published 2007
Place of publication Netherlands
Publisher Elsevier BV
Abstract The aim of this study was to explore the potential pro- and anti-mutagenic effects of endogenous bile pigments unconjugated bilirubin (BR), biliverdin (BV) and a synthetic, water soluble conjugate, bilirubin ditaurate (BRT) in the Ames Salmonella test. The bile pigments were tested over a wide concentration range (0.01–2 μmol/plate) in the presence of three bacterial strains (TA98, TA100, TA102). A variety of mutagens including benzo[α]pyrene (B[α]P), 2,4,7 trinitrofluorenone (TNFone), 2-aminofluorene (2-AF), sodium azide (NaN3) and tertiary-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BuOOH), were used to promote the formation of mutant revertants. Tests were conducted with (B[α]P, 2-AF, t-BuOOH) and without (TNFone, NaN3, t-BuOOH) metabolic activation incorporating the addition of the microsomal liver preparation, S9. The bile pigments alone did not induce mutagenicity in any of the strains tested (p > 0.05). Anti-mutagenic effects of the bile pigments were observed in the presence of all mutagens except for NaN3 and the anti-mutagenic effects appeared independent of the strain tested. For TNFone induced genotoxicity, the order of effectiveness was BR ≥ BRT > BV. However, the order was BV ≥ BRT ≥ BR for 2-AF. Antioxidant testing in the TA102 strain revealed bile pigments could effectively inhibit the genotoxic effect of t-BuOOH induced oxidative stress. The apparent antioxidant and anti-mutagenic behaviour of bile pigments further suggests their presence in biological systems is of possible physiological importance.
Peer Reviewed Yes
Published Yes
Publisher URI http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/journaldescription.cws_home/522820/description#description
Alternative URI http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mrgentox.2007.01.008
Volume 629
Issue Number 2
Page from 122
Page to 132
ISSN 1383-5718
Date Accessioned 2009-11-05
Date Available 2009-12-14T03:14:56Z
Language en_AU
Research Centre Heart Foundation Research Centre; Griffith Health Institute
Faculty Griffith Health Faculty
Subject Medical and Health Sciences
URI http://hdl.handle.net/10072/27433
Publication Type Journal Articles (Refereed Article)
Publication Type Code c1x

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