Decline in recycled water quality during short-term storage in open ponds

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Title Decline in recycled water quality during short-term storage in open ponds
Author Higgins, Jennifer; Warnken, Jan; Teasdale, Peter; Arthur, Michael
Journal Name Journal of water and health
Editor Charles P. Gerba, Paul R. Hunter, Paul Jagals, In S. Kim, Mark J Nieuwenhuijsen, Steve Pedley
Year Published 2009
Place of publication UK
Publisher IWA Plublishing
Abstract Changes were assessed in urban wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent quality during short-term storage in open surface ponds. Water quality was monitored over five years at the inlets and outlets of open storage ponds located at three biological nutrient removal plants. Pond influent temperature, rainfall and sewage inflow were not found to be major factors. However, there was a trend for water temperature to be correlated negatively with nitrogenous nutrient and positively with faecal coliform values. The observed increases in faecal coliforms, nutrients and chemical oxygen demand were most likely caused through avian faecal contamination. These increases challenge the notion that pond storage has a positive or negligible effect on effluent quality. The observed one to two orders of magnitude increase in faecal coliforms may affect reuse scheme viability by limiting the range of uses under Australian water recycling guidelines. Potential improvements to short-term recycled water storage management at WWTPs could include the integration of monitoring requirements in WWTP discharge licences and recycling guidelines and the monitoring of all water quality parameters, including microbiological ones, at the point of entry into the recycled water distribution system, after WWTP storage, rather than directly post-disinfection
Peer Reviewed Yes
Published Yes
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Copyright Statement Copyright IWA Publishing 2009. The definitive peer-reviewed and edited version of this article is published in Journal of Water and Health Vol 07 No 4 pp 597–608 2009 and is available at
Volume 7
Issue Number 4
Page from 597
Page to 608
ISSN 1477-8920
Date Accessioned 2010-03-08
Language en_AU
Research Centre Environmental Futures Research Institute; Australian Rivers Institute; Griffith Institute For Tourism
Faculty Faculty of Science, Environment, Engineering and Technology
Subject Environmental Chemistry (incl Atmospheric Chemistry); Environmental Monitoring
Publication Type Journal Articles (Refereed Article)
Publication Type Code c1

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