Virtual & inertial sensors to detect illegal cricket bowling

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Title Virtual & inertial sensors to detect illegal cricket bowling
Author Wixted, Andrew James; Portus, Marc; James, Daniel Arthur
Publication Title Procedia Engineering
Editor Anton Sabo, Stefan Litzenberger, Patricia Kafka, Christoph Sabo
Year Published 2010
Place of publication Amsterdam
Publisher Elsevier
Abstract Cricket bowlers suspected of an illegal arm action under the laws of cricket undergo testing in an approved biomechanics laboratory. They are assessed using a variety of analysis systems such as retro-reflective motion analysis systems (e.g. VICON). In general these systems allow for detailed and sophisticated analysis of human movement but are limited to the contrived laboratory environment and have suspect ecological validity. In-situ studies into bowling actions have typically relied upon frame by frame high speed match video analysis which, aside from the time involved, also has limitations in discriminating between sources of elbow movement such as flexion, extension, hyperextension, abduction & adduction. In-situ Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) inertial sensors have the potential to discriminate between legal & illegal bowling actions in real time. Methodology and Results: Using previously developed wearable technology it is possible to measure arm action at a number of points on the bowling arm. The technology is based on inertial sensors and measures the arms changes in motion hundreds of times a second. These sensors respond to minute changes in inertia in linear and radial directions. These are known as accelerometers and rate gyroscopes, respectively. Case study results from a sub elite bowler show clear differences between throwing and bowling action. Processing of existing elite bowler laboratory motion capture data, to convert the 3D global frame of reference data into arm mounted ‘virtual’ inertial sensors has provided confirmation of information collected from sub-elite bowlers. These virtual sensors also provide information on the range of rotation rates and accelerations that occur during the bowling arm-action as well as identifying signatures that frame the bowling action. Conclusions: The sensors have been shown to be able to detect a number of arm actions. The virtual sensors have confirmed that these signals exist in the actions of elite bowlers. The virtual sensors have also identified signals that frame the bowling action allowing it to be identified in real time. The next step in this research is the development of sensors that can respond to the range of high rotation rates and accelerations, the laboratory verification of these sensors, and the testing of the sensors in competition.
Peer Reviewed No
Published Yes
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Copyright Statement Copyright remains with the authors 2010. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported (CC BY-NC-ND 3.0) License ( which permits unrestricted, non-commercial use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, providing that the work is properly cited. You may not alter, transform, or build upon this work.
ISBN 18777058
Conference name 8th Conference of the International Sports Engineering Association
Location Vienna
Date From 2010-07-12
Date To 2010-07-16
Date Accessioned 2010-08-18
Date Available 2015-02-26T05:43:20Z
Language en_US
Faculty Faculty of Science, Environment, Engineering and Technology
Subject Biomechanical Engineering; Signal Processing
Publication Type Conference Publications (Extract Paper)
Publication Type Code e3

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