Analysis of Knee Flexion Angles During 2 Clinical Versions of the Heel Raise Test to Assess Soleus and Gastrocnemius Function

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Title Analysis of Knee Flexion Angles During 2 Clinical Versions of the Heel Raise Test to Assess Soleus and Gastrocnemius Function
Author Hébert-Losier, Kim; Schneiders, Anthony G.; Sullivan, S. John; Newsham-West, Richard John; García, José A.; Simoneau, Guy G.
Journal Name Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy
Year Published 2011
Place of publication United States
Publisher American Physical Therapy Association
Abstract STUDY DESIGN: Controlled laboratory study, using a repeated-measures, counterbalanced design. OBJECTIVES: To provide estimates on the average knee angle maintained, absolute knee angle error, and total repetitions performed during 2 versions of the heel raise test. BACKGROUND: The heel raise test is performed in knee extension (EHRT) to assess gastrocnemius and knee flexion (FHRT) for soleus. However, it has not yet been determined whether select knee angles are maintained or whether total repetitions differ between the clinical versions of the heel raise test. METHODS: Seventeen healthy males and females performed maximal heel raise repetitions in 0° (EHRT) and 30° (FHRT) of desired knee flexion. The average angle maintained and absolute error at the knee during the 2 versions, and total heel raise repetitions, were measured using motion analysis. Participants’ kinematic measures were fitted into a generalized estimation equation model to provide estimates on EHRT and FHRT performance applicable to the general population. RESULTS: The model estimates that average angles of 2.2° and 30.7° will be maintained at the knee by the general population during the EHRT and the FHRT, with an absolute angle error of 3.4° and 2.5°, respectively. In both versions, 40 repetitions should be completed. However, the average angles maintained by participants ranged from –6.3° to 21.6° during the EHRT and from 22.0° to 43.0° during the FHRT, with the highest absolute errors in knee position being 25.9° and 33.5°, respectively. CONCLUSION: On average, select knee angles will be maintained by the general population during the select heel raise test versions, but individualized performance is variable and total repetitions do not distinguish between versions. Clinicians should, therefore, interpret select heel raise test outcomes with caution when used to respectively assess and rehabilitate soleus and gastrocnemius function.
Peer Reviewed Yes
Published Yes
Alternative URI http://dx.doi.org/10.2519/jospt.2011.3489
Copyright Statement Copyright 2011 Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy. Reproduced with permission of the Orthopaedic Section and the Sports Physical Therapy Section of the American Physical Therapy Association (APTA). Please refer to the journal's website for access to the definitive, published version.
Volume 41
Issue Number 7
Page from 505
Page to 513
ISSN 0190-6011
Date Accessioned 2012-02-08
Date Available 2012-05-17T22:20:59Z
Language en_US
Research Centre Centre for Musculoskeletal Research; Griffith Health Institute
Faculty Griffith Health Faculty
Subject Human Movement and Sports Science
URI http://hdl.handle.net/10072/42927
Publication Type Journal Articles (Refereed Article)
Publication Type Code c1

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