Spatial and temporal changes in group dynamics and range use enable anti-predator responses in African buffalo

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Title Spatial and temporal changes in group dynamics and range use enable anti-predator responses in African buffalo
Author Tambling, Craig J.; Druce, Dave J.; Hayward, Matt W.; Castley, Guy; Adendorff, John; Kerley, Graham I.H.
Journal Name Ecology
Year Published 2012
Place of publication United States
Publisher Ecological Society of America
Abstract The reintroduction of large predators provides a framework to investigate responses by prey species to predators. Considerable research has been directed at the impact that reintroduced wolves (Canis lupus) have on cervids, and to a lesser degree, bovids, in northern temperate regions. Generally, these impacts alter feeding, activity, and ranging behavior, or combinations of these. However, there are few studies on the response of African bovids to reintroduced predators, and thus, there is limited data to compare responses by tropical and temperate ungulates to predator reintroductions. Using the reintroduction of lion (Panthera leo) into the Addo Elephant National Park (AENP) Main Camp Section, South Africa, we show that Cape buffalo (Syncerus caffer) responses differ from northern temperate ungulates. Following lion reintroduction, buffalo herds amalgamated into larger, more defendable units; this corresponded with an increase in the survival of juvenile buffalo. Current habitat preference of buffalo breeding herds is for open habitats, especially during the night and morning, when lion are active. The increase in group size and habitat preference countered initial high levels of predation on juvenile buffalo, resulting in a return in the proportion of juveniles in breeding herds to pre-lion levels. Our results show that buffalo responses to reintroduced large predators in southern Africa differ to those of northern temperate bovids or cervids in the face of wolf predation. We predict that the nature of the prey response to predator reintroduction is likely to reflect the trade-off between the predator selection and hunting strategy of predators against the life history and foraging strategies of each prey species.
Peer Reviewed Yes
Published Yes
Alternative URI http://dx.doi.org/10.1890/11-1770.1
Copyright Statement Copyright 2012 Ecological Society of America. The attached file is reproduced here in accordance with the copyright policy of the publisher. Please refer to the journal's website for access to the definitive, published version.
Volume 93
Issue Number 6
Page from 1297
Page to 1304
ISSN 0012-9658
Date Accessioned 2012-07-06
Language en_US
Research Centre Environmental Futures Research Institute
Faculty Faculty of Science, Environment, Engineering and Technology
Subject Behavioural Ecology; Wildlife and Habitat Management
URI http://hdl.handle.net/10072/47605
Publication Type Journal Articles (Refereed Article)
Publication Type Code c1

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