Biological monitoring of chlorpyrifos exposure to rice farmers in Vietnam

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Title Biological monitoring of chlorpyrifos exposure to rice farmers in Vietnam
Author Phung, Dung; Connell, Des; Miller, Greg; Hodge, Mary; Patel, Renu; Cheng, Ron; Abeyewardene, Manel; Chu, Cordia Ming-Yeuk
Journal Name Chemosphere
Year Published 2012
Place of publication United Kingdom
Publisher Elsevier
Abstract Chlorpyrifos is the most common organophosphate insecticide registered for use in Vietnam and is widely used in agriculture, particularly rice farming. However, chlorpyrifos exposure to and adverse effects on farmers has not been evaluated. In this study, biological monitoring of chlorpyrifos exposure in a group of rice farmers was conducted after a typical application event using back-pack spraying. Urine samples (24 h) were collected from the rice farmers before and post insecticide application. Samples were analysed for 3,5,6-trichloropyridinol (TCP), the major urinary metabolite of chlorpyrifos, using an enzymatic pre-treatment before extraction followed by HPLC–MS/MS. Absorbed Daily Dose (ADD) of chlorpyrifos for farmers were then estimated from urinary TCP levels, expressed as lg g1 creatinine. The analytical method for urinary TCP had a low detection limit (0.6 lg L1), acceptable recovery values (80–114%), and low relative percentage differences in duplicate and repeated samples. Post-application chlorpyrifos ADD of farmers varied from 0.4 to 94.2 lg kg1 (body weight) d1 with a mean of 19.4 lg kg1 d1 which was approximately 80-fold higher than the mean baseline exposure level (0.24 lg kg1 d1). Hazard Quotients (ratio of the mean ADD for rice farmers to acute oral reference dose) calculated using acute oral reference doses recommended by United States and Australian agencies varied from 2.1 (Australian NRA), 4.2 (US EPA) to 6.9 (ATSDR). Biological monitoring using HPLC–MS/MS analysis of urinary TCP (24 h) was found to be an effective method for measuring chlorpyrifos exposure among farmers. This case study found that Vietnamese rice farmers had relatively high exposures to chlorpyrifos after application, which were likely to have adverse health effects.
Peer Reviewed Yes
Published Yes
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Copyright Statement Copyright 2012 Elsevier. This is the author-manuscript version of this paper. Reproduced in accordance with the copyright policy of the publisher. Please refer to the journal's website for access to the definitive, published version.
Volume 87
Issue Number 4
Page from 294
Page to 300
ISSN 0045-6535
Date Accessioned 2012-06-26
Language en_US
Research Centre Griffith Asia Institute
Faculty Faculty of Science, Environment, Engineering and Technology
Subject PRE2009-Environmental and Occupational Health and Safety
Publication Type Journal Articles (Refereed Article)
Publication Type Code c1

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